Baekeland and Hartmann report that the “short sleepers” had been more or less average in their sleep needs until the men were in their teens. But at about age 15 or so, the men voluntarily began cutting down their nightly sleep time because of pressures from school, work, and other activities. These men tended to view their nightly periods of unconsciousness as bothersome interruptions in their daily routines.
In general, these “short sleepers” appeared ambitious, active, energetic, cheerful, conformist (不动摇) in their opinions, and were very sure about their career choices. They often held several jobs at once, or worked full-or part-time while going to school. And many of them had a strong urge to appear “normal” or “acceptable” to their friends and associates.
When asked to recall their dreams, the “short sleepers” did poorly. More than this, they seemed to prefer not remembering. In similar fashion, their usual way of dealing with psychological problems was to deny that the problem existed, and then to keep busy in the hope that the trouble would go away.
The sleep patterns of the “short sleepers” were similar to, but less extreme than, sleep patterns shown by many mental patients categorized as manic (疯人).
The “long sleepers” were quite different indeed. Baekeland and Hartmann report that these young men had been lengthy sleepers since childhood. They seemed to enjoy their sleep, protected it, and were quite concerned when they were occasionally deprived of their desired 9 hours of nightly bed rest. They tended to recall their dreams much better than did the “short sleepers”.
Many of the “long sleepers” were shy, anxious, introverted (内向), inhibited (压抑), passive, mildly depressed, and unsure of themselves (particularly in social situations). Several openly state that sleep was an escape from their daily problems.
131. According to the report, ______.
A. many short sleepers need less sleep by nature
B. many short sleepers are obliged to reduce their nightly sleep time because they are busy with their work
C. long sleepers sleep a longer period of time during the day
D. many long sleepers preserve their sleeping habit formed during their childhood
132. Many “short sleepers” are likely to hold the view that ______.
A. sleep is a withdrawal from the reality
B. sleep interferes with their sound judgement
C. sleep is the least expensive item on their routine program
D. sleep is the best way to deal with psychological troubles
133. It is stated in the third paragraph that short sleepers ______.
A. are ideally vigorous even under the pressures of life
B. often neglect the consequences of inadequate sleep
C. do not know how to relax properly
D. are more unlikely to run into mental problems
134. When sometimes they cannot enjoy adequate sleep, the long sleepers might ______.
A. appear disturbed
B. become energetic
C. feel dissatisfied
D. be extremely depressed
135. Which of the following is NOT included in the passage?
A. If one sleeps inadequately, his performance suffers and his memory is weakened.
B. The sleep patterns of short sleepers are exactly the same as those shown by many mental patients.
C. Long and short sleepers differ in their attitudes towards sleep.
D. Short sleepers would be better off with more rest.
131.【答案】D。解析：细节题。根据倒数第二段第一句中的... these young men had been lengthy sleepers since childhood. 可知睡眠时间长的习惯是从小就形成的，故D项正确。根据第一段第一句：the “short sleepers” had been more or less average in their sleep needs until the men were in their teens. 可知，睡眠少的人在青春期到来之前他们的睡眠需求基本是属于正常水平的，由此可知A项错误;文章第一段第二句是说the men voluntarily began cutting down their nightly sleep time because of pressures from …，他们是自愿削减睡眠时间的，而不是B项说的are obliged to不得不，被迫，所以B错误;根据倒数第二段倒数第二句：… were quite concerned when they were occasionally deprived of their desired 9 hours of nightly bed rest … 可知，睡眠时间长的人是在晚上睡觉，文章没有提到睡眠时间长的人在白天的睡眠时间是否更长，所以C没有提到。故选D。
133.【答案】B。解析：推断题。关于梦境，睡眠少的人不愿去记自己做了什么梦，也不愿正视自己存在的心理问题。由此可推断他们忽视睡眠不足的影响。故选B。该段只是说这些人keep busy以期望心理问题能够自行解决，keep busy不等于are ideally vigorous，故排除A;该段并没有涉及任何“睡眠少的人不知道如何放松”及“睡眠少的人更不可能得心理疾病”的信息，故排除C、D。
134.【答案】A。解析：细节题。根据倒数第二段第三句话中的They ... were quite concerned when they were occasionally deprived of their desired 9 hours of nightly bed rest. 可知如果偶尔被剥夺了充足的睡眠的话，他们会焦虑、担忧。四个选项中只有A项“显得不安”与原文意思最接近，故答案选A。become energetic与原文意思相反;feel dissatisfied没有表达出“焦虑”的意思;be extremely depressed程度过重。
135.【答案】B。解析：细节题。根据原文中对short sleepers和long sleepers的dreams的回忆情况可知，long sleepers在这方面做得要比short sleepers好得多，由此可推知如果睡眠不充分，一个人的记忆等表现会变弱，故A、D两项正确;根据第四段The sleep patterns of the “short sleepers” were similar to, but less extreme than, sleep patterns shown by many mental patients ... 可知睡眠少的人，其睡眠模式只是和精神病患者的睡眠模式相似，而并非完全相同，故B项错误;根据第一段最后一句及第五段中描述的short sleepers和long sleepers对睡眠的不同态度可知C项正确。